Containernet is a fork of the famous Mininet network emulator and allows to use Docker containers as hosts in emulated network topologies. This enables interesting functionalities to build networking/cloud emulators and testbeds. One example for this is the NFV multi-PoP infrastructure emulator which was created by the SONATA-NFV project and is now part of the OpenSource MANO (OSM) project. Besides this, Containernet is actively used by the research community, focussing on experiments in the field of cloud computing, fog computing, network function virtualization (NFV), and mobile edge computing (MEC).

News and Releases

Cite this work

If you use Containernet for your work, please cite the following publication:

M. Peuster, H. Karl, and S. v. Rossem: MeDICINE: Rapid Prototyping of Production-Ready Network Services in Multi-PoP Environments. IEEE Conference on Network Function Virtualization and Software Defined Networks (NFV-SDN), Palo Alto, CA, USA, pp. 148-153. doi: 10.1109/NFV-SDN.2016.7919490. (2016)


    author={M. Peuster and H. Karl and S. van Rossem}, 
    booktitle={2016 IEEE Conference on Network Function Virtualization and Software Defined Networks (NFV-SDN)}, 
    title={MeDICINE: Rapid prototyping of production-ready network services in multi-PoP environments}, 

Get started

Using Containernet is very similar to using Mininet with custom topologies.

Create a custom topology

To start, a Python-based network topology description has to be created as shown in the following example:

Example topology with two containers (d1, d2),
two switches, and one controller:

          - (c)-
         |      |
(d1) - (s1) - (s2) - (d2)
from mininet.net import Containernet
from mininet.node import Controller
from mininet.cli import CLI
from mininet.link import TCLink
from mininet.log import info, setLogLevel

net = Containernet(controller=Controller)
info('*** Adding controller\n')
info('*** Adding docker containers using ubuntu:trusty images\n')
d1 = net.addDocker('d1', ip='', dimage="ubuntu:trusty")
d2 = net.addDocker('d2', ip='', dimage="ubuntu:trusty")
info('*** Adding switches\n')
s1 = net.addSwitch('s1')
s2 = net.addSwitch('s2')
info('*** Creating links\n')
net.addLink(d1, s1)
net.addLink(s1, s2, cls=TCLink, delay='100ms', bw=1)
net.addLink(s2, d2)
info('*** Starting network\n')
info('*** Testing connectivity\n')
net.ping([d1, d2])
info('*** Running CLI\n')
info('*** Stopping network')

You can find this topology in containernet/examples/containernet_example.py.

Run emulation and interact with containers

Containernet requires root access to configure the emulated network described by the topology script:

sudo python containernet_example.py

After launching the emulated network, you can interact with the involved containers through Mininet’s interactive CLI as shown with the ping command in the following example:

containernet> d1 ping -c3 d2
PING ( 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=200 ms
64 bytes from icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=200 ms
64 bytes from icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=200 ms

--- ping statistics ---
3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2002ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 200.162/200.316/200.621/0.424 ms

To stop the emulation, do:

containernet> exit


Containernet comes with three installation and deployment options.

Option 1: Bare-metal installation

Automatic installation is provided through an Ansible playbook. Requires: Ubuntu 16.04 LTS.

sudo apt-get install ansible git aptitude
git clone https://github.com/containernet/containernet.git
cd containernet/ansible
sudo ansible-playbook -i "localhost," -c local install.yml

Option 2: Nested Docker deployment

Containernet can be executed within a privileged Docker container (nested container deployment). There is also a pre-build Docker image available on DockerHub.

# build the container locally
docker build -t containernet .
# or pull the latest pre-build container
docker pull containernet/containernet
# run the container
docker run --name containernet -it --rm --privileged --pid='host' -v /var/run/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock containernet /bin/bash

Option 3: Vagrant-based VM creation

Using the provided Vagrantfile is the another way to run and test Containernet:

vagrant up
vagrant ssh

Libvirt Extension

Containernet 2.0 comes with an extended version that adds libvirt support which allows to connect and run arbitrary, fully-featured virtual machines (Qemu/KVM) as emulated hosts inside Containernet networks. You can find this extension in a dedicated branch on GitHub. More documentation about the libvirt integration is available on this wiki page. Note: The libvirt integration is still in an early stage and should be considered as experimental code!


Containernet has been used for a variety of research tasks and networking projects. If you use Containernet, let us know!


Containernet is part of the OpenSource MANO research ecosystem



If you have any questions, please use GitHub’s issue system or Containernet’s Gitter channel to get in touch.


Your contributions are very welcome! Please fork the GitHub repository and create a pull request. We use Travis-CI to automatically test new commits.

Lead developer

Manuel Peuster